What Are Carbohydrates

carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon  hydrogen and oxygen atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may or may not be different from n). However, not all carbohydrates conform to this precise stoichiometric definition (e.g., uronic acids, deoxy-sugars such as fucose), nor are all chemicals that do conform to this definition automatically classified as carbohydrates (e.g. formaldehyde and acetic acid).

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Sarah Blunden, P.Dt, CDE, CPT, Professional Dietitian, talks about how to eat healthy carbohydrates for a good energy sources and improved glycemic control.

Quiz: Do You Understand Carbohydrates?

Test your knowledge by answering the following questions:

Questions
True
False
1

A diet that is too low in carbohydrates may lead to depression.

Explanation:
Research has shown that carbohydrate-rich foods can trigger the production of the brain chemicals serotonin and tryptophan, which promote the feeling of well-being. If your diet is lacking carbohydrates, it could lead to depression symptoms.
2

There are three main types of carbohydrates.

Explanation:
The three main types of carbohydrates are sugar, starch and fiber. You should focus on eating healthy carbohydrates from foods such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, grains and legumes.
3

Carbohydrates provide the body with fructose.

Explanation:
Carbohydrates provide the body with glucose (blood sugar), which is converted to energy.
4

Carbohydrates can play a very important role in diabetes management.

Explanation:
Choosing high-fibre carbohydrates will help slow down digestion, causing fewer spikes in blood glucose.
5

You should not consume carbohydrates before exercising, only afterwards to replenish energy.

Explanation:
Fueling up on carbohydrates before exercise helps maintain optimal levels of blood glucose, which the muscles need. However, you should choose pre-workout foods that are easy to digest, such as a granola bar or a banana. Otherwise, you may feel sluggish or experience gastrointestinal distress.
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Healthy Carbohydrates for Glycemic Control

Carbohydrates are starches, fibres and sugars that we can find in different foods. So, there are different food groups that contain carbohydrates, such as our grains and starches, fruits, some vegetables, and dairy and milk.

We also find them in another food group called other. So, this is usually cookies, candies, things like that. Carbohydrates are actually our main fuel and source of energy, and even the brain will use carbohydrates as its source of energy.

In carbohydrates, we find a lot of vitamins, minerals and fibre. So, fibre has a lot of benefit for our body. It can actually help lower our cholesterol levels. It’s very important for the health of our intestines and our digestion. Best of all, it can even help with management of diabetes.

There are different types of carbohydrates, such as short-chain carbohydrates, so these are also called rapid-acting carbohydrates. Meaning that the body will digest them and absorb them quickly or faster, which can actually cause a spike in the blood sugar. Some examples would be juice, white bread and sugar.

Then we have longer-chain carbohydrates, so this takes the body longer to digest and absorb, causing less of an effect on the blood sugar. Examples would be legumes, oats, barley and berries, for example.

When you’re looking for foods, let’s say out in the grocery store, and you’re reading labels, a really important thing to look for is the amount fibre. So, when you choose products that have higher fibre, these are going to take longer to digest. Local Nutritionist 

Carbohydrates can play a very important role in diabetes management. Aiming to choose high-fibre carbohydrates will help in slowing down the digestion, causing less spikes in blood glucose. Also, when choosing carbohydrates, we’re looking at the quality – so meaning high fibre – but also the quantity.

For example, on your plate, a quarter of your plate should be the quantity of carbohydrates, which could equate to about one cup, or a fist. So, for example at a meal, having a cup of cooked barley, or a cup of cooked lentils, for example, on your plate could be your portion of carbohydrates. Local Registered Dietician

Here are some tips: aiming to put more vegetables and legumes on your plate. Looking at the quality of the carbohydrates, so high fibre, and also keeping an eye on the quantity. As you increase your fibre, don’t forget to increase your water as well.

And if you’d like more information, reach out to a Registered Dietitian or a Professional Dietitian, as well as your healthcare team. Local Registered Dietitians

Presenter: Ms. Sarah Blunden, Registered Dietitian, Ville Saint-Laurent, QC

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